اطلاعات مفید در مورد زبان انگلیسی

New language New Life

شنبه 26 تیر 1389

A for effort

- the recognition that someone has tried hard to do something even though he or she may not be successful

The students received an A for effort for their work on the class project.

above average

- better or higher than average

The boy's marks were above average in all subjects except history.

as easy as ABC

- very easy

Learning how to use a computer is as easy as ABC for the children.

back to basics

- an approach in education that uses traditional ideas or methods that have been successful in the past

The teacher believes that back to basics is important in her classroom and the parents are happy with the results.

below average

- worse or lower than average

Most members of the class were below average in the math test.

bookworm

- someone who reads a lot

My sister is a bookworm and is always reading a book.

brainstorm (something)

- to try to develop an idea or think of new ideas

The students got into groups to brainstorm ideas for the school play.

call the roll

- to call the names of students on a roll and expect them to answer if they are there

Every morning when the class starts the teacher calls the roll.

cap and gown

- the special cap called a mortarboard and the robe that is worn during academic ceremonies such as graduation

All of the students wore a cap and gown to the graduation ceremony.

catch up to (someone or something)

- to move fast or work hard to reach someone or something that is ahead of you

After my illness, I had to study very hard to catch up to the rest of the class.

copycat

- someone who copies the work of another

The children called the girl a copycat when they saw her copying the test of another student.

count noses

- to count the number of people

The teacher stopped to count noses several times during the field trip.

cover a lot of ground

- to complete a lot of material in a class or course

We covered a lot of ground during the first month of the science class.

cow college

- a school where farming or agriculture is studied

My cousin will go to a cow college when he finishes high school.

crack a book

- to open a book to study (usually used in the negative)

I did very well in the course even though I did not crack a book until the last week of classes.

crank out a paper

- to write a paper or essay in a mechanical way

I had to crank out a paper almost every week to pass the course.

cut class

- to not go to class

I decided to cut class in order to study for my geography test.

draw a blank

- to get no response from someone when you ask him or her a question

The teacher drew a blank when she asked about the boy's plans for the weekend.

drop out of school

- to stop attending school

My friend dropped out of school and began to drive a truck.

eager beaver

- someone who works very hard and is very enthusiastic

The young girl is an eager beaver and always comes to class before the other students.

fill in the blanks

- to supply the missing words or information on a test or other exercise

We had to fill in the blanks for the questions on the test.

flunk out

- to fail a course, to fail and then leave school

The boy was very smart but he flunked out of his language class.

from the old school

- ideas that were popular in the past but which are no longer popular or common

My grandmother is from the old school and always made her children make their own lunches and walk to school.

get credit for (a course)

- to receive official recognition and credits after passing a course

I was able to get credit for the course which I took in the summer.

get through (a course or a set of materials)

- to finish a course or a set of materials

The boy was a very good student and got through every course that he took.

goof off

- to waste time

My sister spent most of the week goofing off and was not prepared for her test.

have one's nose in a book

- to be reading a book

The boy loves to read and always has his nose in a book.

higher education

- education after graduating from high school (usually college or university)

The government has recently invested a lot of money in higher education.

hit the books

- to begin to study hard

After relaxing all weekend I hit the books on Sunday evening.

honor roll

- a list of people or students with exceptional achievements

My neighbor was on the honor roll during his last year in high school.

in pen

- written or signed with a pen

The teacher asked the students to make sure that they wrote the essay in pen.

in pencil

- written or signed with a pencil

I wrote the test in pencil so that I could change my answers easily.

Ivy League

- a small group of older and famous eastern United States colleges and universities such as Harvard and Yale and Princeton

Several of the company executives went to an Ivy League school.

know one's ABCs

- to know the alphabet or the most basic things about something

The students worked hard and everyone knew their ABCs very well.

learn (something) by heart

- to memorize something so that you can repeat it without thinking

The children learned all of the songs by heart for the school play.

learn (something) by rote

- to learn or memorize something without thinking about it

We learned many verbs by rote in the foreign language class.

live in an ivory tower

- to not be aware of the realities of everyday life

The university professor lived in an ivory tower and had no idea what was going on around him.

make the grade

- to be satisfactory and of an expected level

My final assignment did not make the grade and I had to do it again.

meet the requirements for/of (something)

- to fulfill the requirements for/of something

The young woman was unable to meet the requirements to enter medical school.

off campus

- at a different location than the grounds of a college or university

Many of the students liked to go to a restaurant off campus.

old boy network

- the situation where people (usually men) who went to the same school help each other get good jobs

It was necessary to be part of an old boy network to get a job at the law firm.

on campus

- located on the grounds of a college or university

There was a bank on campus which many of the students used.

pass with flying colors

- to pass something easily and with a high score

I was able to pass the science test with flying colors.

play hooky

- to not go to school when you should

The boys played hooky and went to the video game center for the afternoon.

publish or perish

- university professors often have to publish books or articles in journals or they will not be successful in their jobs at the university

The university professor wrote many scientific papers. He was forced to publish or perish.

put one's thinking cap on

- to start thinking in a serious manner

The boy put on his thinking cap and tried to think of a new name for the school newspaper.

read out loud

- to read something so that other people can hear you

The students each had a chance to read out loud from the book of poems.

read to oneself

- to read without saying anything so that other people cannot hear you

I spent the morning in the library reading to myself.

read through something

- to read all of something

I read through the test briefly before I started to answer the questions.

school of hard knocks

- the ordinary experience of learning from work and daily life

The girl left school early and began to learn about life in the school of hard knocks.

school of thought

- a particular way or philosophy of thinking about something

There are many schools of thought about how to learn a foreign language.

show-and-tell

- in the lower grades of elementary school children bring something interesting to show to the rest of the class

The little girl brought in a turtle shell to show-and-tell at school.

show of hands

- a raising of hands in a classroom or other group to vote or see what people think about something

After a show of hands the class voted to go on a field trip next week.

single file

- a line with one person standing behind another person

The students lined up single file before they entered the auditorium.

take attendance

- to record the names of persons who are attending school or something similar

After our teacher took attendance we began to do our math lesson.

take the roll

- to call the names of students in an attendance book and expect them to answer if they are there

The teacher took the roll and then we started the lesson.

teach one's grandmother to suck eggs

- to try to tell or teach something to someone who knows more than you do about it

Teaching some of the students how to use a computer is like teaching my grandmother to suck eggs. Most of them know more than I do.

teach someone a lesson

- to do something to someone in order to punish him or her for their bad behavior

My friend is always late so I taught her a lesson and left our meeting place before she had arrived.

teacher's pet

- the teacher's favorite student

My sister was always the teacher's pet at her school.

three R's

- the three basic skills for a basic education (reading, (w)riting, and (a)rithmetic)

My father studied in a small country school where they studied the three R's.

town-and-gown

- the relations (often bad) between a town and the university and university students who are located in that town

There were some town-and-gown conflicts when the graduation parties began in the small town.

university of life

- the daily life and work where you learn more than from going to university

My grandfather began to work on the family farm when he was fourteen and learned everything from the university of life.

work one's way through college

- to work at a job to help pay for your college or university expenses

My brother worked his way through college at the local supermarket.

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  • شنبه 26 تیر 1389

    at death's door

    - very near death

    The sales manager was at death's door after having a heart attack.

    back on one's feet

    - to be physically healthy again

    My mother is back on her feet after being sick for two weeks.

    black out

    - to lose consciousness, to faint, to pass out

    The football player blacked out after being hit by the other player.

    break out in (something)

    - to begin showing a rash or other skin disorder

    I broke out in a terrible rash after eating the raw shrimp at the restaurant.

    breathe one's last

    - to die

    The man breathed his last after a long illness.

    bring (someone) around

    - to restore someone to health or consciousness, to cure someone

    The medical workers were able to bring the man around after the accident.

    bring (someone) to

    - to restore someone to consciousness from sleep/anesthesia/hypnosis/fainting

    We tried hard to bring the woman to after the car accident.

    catch a cold

    - to get a cold

    I caught a bad cold last week and had to miss three weeks of work.

    catch one's death of cold

    - to become very ill (with a cold/flu etc.)

    The little boy was told to be careful in the rain or he would catch his death of cold.

    check-up

    - an examination of a patient by a doctor

    I went to have my annual check-up last week.

    clean bill of health

    - a report or certificate that a person or animal is healthy

    The doctor gave me a clean bill of health when I visited him last month.

    come down with (something)

    - to become sick with something, to catch something

    My niece came down with a bad cold and was unable to visit me last week.

    couch doctor

    - a psychoanalyst who puts his patients on a couch

    The man was sent to see a couch doctor because of his his problems at work.

    a dose/taste of one's own medicine

    - the same treatment that one gives to others (usually a negative meaning)

    Our boss got a taste of his own medicine when people began to treat him badly like he treats others.

    draw blood

    - to make someone bleed, to get blood from someone

    The doctor decided to draw blood from the patient to check his blood sugar level.

    fall ill

    - to become sick or ill

    The man fell ill last winter and has not recovered yet.

    feel on top of the world

    - to feel very healthy

    I have been feeling on top of the world since I quit my job.

    flare up

    - to begin again suddenly (an illness or a disease)

    My mother's skin problem flared up when she started to use the new laundry soap.

    a flare-up

    - a sudden worsening of a health condition

    My father's arthritus flares up every winter.

    go under the knife

    - to be operated on in surgery

    The woman went under the knife at the hospital last evening.

    hang out one's shingle

    - to give public notice of the opening of a doctor's office etc.

    The doctor decided to hang out his shingle as soon as he finished medical school.

    have a physical (examination)

    - to get a medical check-up

    Our company sent all the employees to have a physical last week.

    head shrinker

    - a psychiatrist

    The man went to see a head shrinker after his recent problems at work.

    just what the doctor ordered

    - exactly what is needed or wanted

    A nice hot bath was just what the doctor ordered after the long day at work.

    look the picture of health

    - to be in good health

    My uncle looked the picture of health when I saw him last week.

    on the mend

    - healing, becoming better

    My grandfather is on the mend after he broke his leg last week.

    out cold

    - to be unconscious, to be in a faint

    When the patient entered the operating room he was out cold because of the anesthesia.

    over the worst

    - to be recovering from an illness

    My brother is over the worst since his skiing accident last month.

    pull through

    - to recover from a serious illness

    The car accident was very bad and I do not think that the driver will pull through.

    run a fever/temperature

    - to have a higher than normal body temperature

    The little boy is running a temperature and should stay in bed all day.

    run down

    - to be in poor condition

    My father worked very hard last month and has become run down.

    run some tests

    - to do some medical tests on a patient

    The doctor decided to run some tests on the patient.

    splitting headache

    - a severe headache

    I have been suffering from a splitting headache all morning.

    take a turn for the worse

    - to become sicker

    My aunt took a turn for the worse last week and she is still in the hospital.

    take (someone's) temperature

    - to measure someone's body temperature

    The nurse took my temperature when I went to the hospital yesterday.

    throw up

    - to vomit

    The woman threw up several times after eating the bad shellfish.

    under the weather

    - to be not feeling well

    My boss has been under the weather all week and has not come to work during that time.

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  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

     

    شیوه های متفاوتی برای نگارش رزومه متداول و مرسوم است و هر كس به مقتضای سلیقه و هدفی كه از نگارش رزومه دارد ، شیوه خاصی را بر می گزیند . اما به طور كلی اصول و سرفصل بندی عمومی رزومه ها به شرح زیر است:

     

      1- جزئیات شخصی(Personal Details)  

    اغلب رزومه ها با این بخش آغاز می شوند . آن چه می بایست در این بخش ذكر شود شامل نام ، جنسیت، شماره پاسپورت، ملیت، تاریخ تولد و مشابهات آن است. درج این اطلاعات در رزومه ضروری است.

     

     2- پروفایل شخصی(Personal Profile)      

    وارد كردن پروفایل در رزومه امری سلیقه ای است و ضروری محسوب نمی شود . آن چه در پروفایل به نگارش در می آید ، تصویری كلی و گویا از شما است كه به طور جزئی تر در سایر بخش های رزومه ذكر می شود.

     

    3- تحصیلات و توانایی های علمی(Education and Qualifications)  

    این بخش شامل تمام سوابق تحصیلی و علمی شما ، از دیپلم دبیرستان و نام دبیرستان گرفته تا آخرین مدرك تحصیلی ، رشته ها و گرایش ها و زمان بندی هر دوره ی تحصیلی خواهد بود. به یاد داشته باشید كه حتماً ذكر كنید در حال حاضر مشغول گذراندن چه دوره ای هستید . سایر دوره های علمی - كابردی كه در كنار تحصیل آكادمیك گذرانده اید را هم حتماً بنویسید. درج این قسمت در رزومه الزامی است.

     

    4- سوابق شغلی  (Skills and Work Experiences)   

    در این بخش باید كل سوابق شغلی شما ، اعم از تمام وقت یا پاره وقت ، با ذكر نام و تلفن یا آدرس محل كار ، به اضافه تاریخ و دوره اشتغال فهرست شود. درج این قسمت نیز در رزومه الزامی است

     

     5- انتشارات و مقالات(Publications)     

    فهرست كتب و مقالاتی كه منتشر كرده و یا در كنفرانس ها ارائه نموده اید به اضافه زمان انتشار را در این بخش بیاورید. اگر خلاصه مقالات را به رزومه ضمیمه نمایید بهتر است. طبعاً درج این قسمت در رزومه الزامی نیست.

     

     6- سایر اطلاعات(Additional Information)   

    نگارش این قسمت نیز ضروری نیست ، اما چنان چه لازم دانستید توضیحی جانبی روی سوابق تحصیلی و شغلی خود بنویسید ، می توانید این بخش را اضافه نمایید.

     

    7 - علائق(Interests)  

    فهرستی از علائق خود در زمینه های فوق برنامه مثل ورزش یا هنر را در این بخش بنویسید و احیاناً اگر سوابق حرفه ای در این زمینه ها دارید حتما ذكر كنید.

     

     8 - معرف ها(References)   

    نام ، رتبه ، درجه تحصیلی ، آدرس یا تلفن و كلاً اطلاعات مربوط به معرفین خود ( كه معمولا اساتید یا کارفرمای شما هستند ) را در این بخش بیاورید . این معرف ها می بایست همان معرفینی باشند كه توصیه نامه های شما را تكمیل نموده اند.

     

    * سایر توصیه ها

    - پیش از نگارش رزومه ، خوب در مورد سوابق تحصیلی و شغلی خود فكر كنید تا چیزی را از قلم نیاندازید . سعی كنید تا حد امكان ، مداركی دال بر سوابقتان آماده و ترجمه كنید تا ضمیمه رزومه نمایید.

    - از دروغگویی یا بزرگنمایی جداً پرهیز کنید ، ممكن است برایتان دردسر ساز شود!

    - بهتر است رزومه را در 2 روی یك كاغذ A4  تنظیم نمایید. بهترین حجم رزومه در همین حد است.

    - حتماً فایل یا چند نسخه اضافه از رزومه برای خودتان نگه دارید تا در صورت لزوم از آن ها استفاده كنید.

    - در مورد نگارش انگلیسی ، حتماً درباره متن رزومه با یك مترجم و یا كسی كه انگلیسی ادبی را به خوبی می داند مشورت كنید.

    - رزومه را حتما تایپ كنید و از ارائه رزومه دست نویس جداً خود داری كنید.

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  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

     

     

    دانستن زبان انگلیسی در حد بسیار خوب برای ورود به هر دوره تحصیلی در مالزی الزامی و حیاتی است. بدیهی است که بدون این قابلیت، امکان تحصیل، پژوهش، ارائه پروژه، مقاله نویسی و غیره برای دانشجو وجود نخواهد داشت و دانشجو نه به خاطر ندانستن مطالب علمی بلکه صرفاً به دلیل نداشتن دانش کافی زبان انگلیسی با افت شدید تحصیلی مواجه خواهد شد. از سوی دیگر زبان انگلیسی زبان علم و تجارت در دنیای امروز است. پس چه بهتر که با نگاه کردن به زبان انگلیسی به عنوان یک سرمایه ی مادام العمر، راه پیشرفت و ترقی چه در دوران تحصیل و چه برای کسب و کار و تجارت را برای خود هموارتر و آسان تر سازید.

    دوره های زبان ارائه شده در کالج های زبان مالزی راهگشا و کلید حل مشکل شما در این موارد هستند. این دوره ها برای همه ی افراد قابل استفاده هستند؛ چه کسانی که صرفاً می خواهند در یک جامعه انگلیسی زبان زندگی روزمره داشته باشند، چه کسانی که از انگلیسی به عنوان زبان تحصیل و پژوهش استفاده می کنند و چه کسانی که علاقمندند تجارت و کسب و کار موفق تری داشته باشند.

    متاسفانه در ایران فقدان جدی آموزش صحیح و حرفه ای زبان انگلیسی  وجود دارد. آموزشگاه های زبان بسیاری در ایران کلاس زبان انگلیسی، آموزش آیلتس، آمادگی تافل و غیره را برگزار می کنند اما ساعات کم این کلاس ها، قرارنداشتن فرد در محیط انگلیسی زبان و در نتیجه فراموشی سریع مطالب کلاس و استفاده نکردن از آموخته ها، همه و همه منجر به بی فایده شدن این دوره ها شده اند. علاوه بر اینها اغلب آموزشگاه های زبان انگلیسی داخل ایران به دلیل عدم ارتباط مداوم با دنیای بیرون از روشهای آموزشی نه چندان پیشرفته و نسبتاً قدیمی استفاده می کنند که تجربه ی مطلوب و آسانی را برای دانشجو رقم نمی زند.

    دوره های زبان انگلیسی در مالزی با بهره گیری از اساتید خبره، از تنوع بالایی برخوردارند و تقریباً نیاز هر کسی را می توانند پاسخ دهند. وجه مشترک دوره های آموزش زبان انگلیسی معرفی شده در ایران ایندیا این است که اولاً، کلیه ی این دوره ها به صورت فشرده و تمام وقت برگزار می شوند و شامل حداقل 5 روز کلاس در هقته و روزی 4 تا 5 ساعت آموزش می باشند. در کنار این، محیط چند ملیتی این کلاس ها باعث می شود دانشجویان در کلاس زبان مجبور باشند از آموخته های خود برای برقراری ارتباط با هم کلاسی ها و استاد بهره بگیرند. به علاوه، آموزش زبان انگلیسی این جا تنها به کلاس درس ختم نمی شود و پس از ساعات درسی محیط پیرامون از فروشگاه و مغازه و خیابان گرفته تا همسایه و تلویزیون و پستچی و نگهبان ساختمان آموزشگاه بزرگتری برای شما می سازند که در تمام مدت ذهن شما را با زبان انگلیسی درگیر می کند و اجازه ی فراموشی مطالب را به شما نمی دهد.

    اگر می خواهید زبان انگلیسی را مطابق با نیازهای خود در سطحی عالی در مالزی بیاموزید، در تماس با مشاور خود در ایران ایندیا شرایط شخصی و هدفتان از آمدن به مالزی را برای او توضیح دهید تا او کالج زبان مناسب را برای شما مشخص و معرفی کند. دوره های آموزش زبان انگلیسی از مبتدی تا پیشرفته، دوره های آموزش آیلتس همراه با خدمات ثبت نام امتحان آیلتس، دوره های آمادگی تافل، دوره های مکالمات روزمره انگلیسی، دوره های زبان کارشناسی ارشد و دکترا، از کلاس های مختلف قابل استفاده در مالزی هستند.

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  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

     

     

    چه تنها در فکر تحصیل در مالزی باشید یا اینکه پذیرش شما در دست بررسی باشد و یا پذیرش تحصیلی از یکی از دانشگاه های مالزی را دریافت نموده باشید، نکات ضروری در مورد ویزای دانشجویی و قوانین مرتبط با آن از مطالبی هستند که حتماً باید پیشاپیش مطالعه نمایید؛

    1-      جز در مواردی که دانشجو دارای اقامت خانه دوم مالزی باشد، تحصیل تمام وقت در دانشگاه های مالزی فقط تحت  ویزای دانشجویی امکان پذیر است به این معنا که مثلاً اگر شخصی ویزای توریستی داشته باشد، قانوناً امکان تحصیل در هیچ مرکز آموزشی در مالزی را نخواهد داشت و در صورت تمایل به گذراندن دوره ای هر چند کوتاه مدت، حتماً باید ویزای خود را به ویزای تحصیلی تغییر دهد. جریان صدور ویزای تحصیلی تنها بعد از اخذ پذیرش تحصیلی در یک کالج یا دانشگاه شروع می شود و معمولاً یک ماه و نیم تا دو ماه و نیم زمان نیاز دارد.

    در مورد دانشجویان اغلب کشورها لازم است که دانشجو پس از اخذ پذیرش تحصیلی تا زمان آماده شدن ویزای دانشجویی خود در اداره مهاجرت مالزی در کشورش منتظر بماند و تنها بعد از صدور ویزا می تواند وارد مالزی شود. اما شهروندان ایرانی این مزیت را دارند که پس از صدور پذیرش تحصیلی می توانند با اخذ یک ویزای سه ماهه ی عمومی بر مبنای دعوت نامه از دانشگاه به صورت توریستی وارد مالزی شوند، در دانشگاه ثبت نام کنند و تحصیل خود را اغاز کنند و همزمان روند صدور ویزای دانشجویی آنها نیز طی خواهد شد. این زمان اقامت توریستی سه ماهه معمولاً برای طی شدن روند صدور ویزا کافی است.

     

    2-      به طور کلی گردش کار صدور ویزای دانشجویی در مالزی به این صورت است که پس از صدور نامه ی پذیرش از سوی دانشگاه و پرداخت هزینه های لازم از سمت دانشجو، مدارک درخواست ویزا از دانشگاه به کمیته کنترل کیفیت آموزش عالی مالزی ارسال می شود. کمیته کنترل کیفیت، مجدداً صلاحیت دانشجو را برای تحصیل در آن دوره و دانشگاه بررسی می نماید و پس از تایید نهایی پرونده را برای صدور ویزا به اداره مهاجرت مالزی می فرستد. زمانی که ویزا در اداره مهاجرت مالزی صادر شد، دانشگاه پاسپورت دانشجو را می گیرد و به اداره مهاجرت می فرستد تا ویزا در پاسپورت ثبت شود. این پروسه ی کاری حداقل یک ماه و نیم زمان نیاز دارد و گاه ممکن است تا پنج ماه نیز طول بکشد. حضور دانشجو در اداره مهاجرت یا سایر نهاد ها جز در موارد خاص به هیچ وجه الزامی نیست و گردش کار ویزا از طرف دانشگاه پیگیری و انجام می شود.

     

    3-      در دانشگاه های خصوصی، در همان زمان صدور پذیرش، به محض دریافت مدارک مورد نیاز همراه با هزینه های مرتبط، درخواست ویزا به کمیته کنترل کیفیت و از آنجا به اداره مهاجرت ارسال می شود. به این ترتیب چنانچه دانشجو به موقع (مثلاً 2 ماه زود تر از ورود به مالزی) درخواست پذیرش و هزینه ها را ارائه کرده باشد، به احتمال زیاد در بدو ورود به مالزی حکم ویزای تحصیلی وی آماده خواهد بود و نیازی به اخذ ویزای عمومی و تبدیل آن به دانشجویی نخواهد داشت. اما در دانشگاه های دولتی به طور کلی تا پیش از ورود دانشجو به مالزی وثبت نام، درخواستی از دانشگاه جهت اخذ ویزای تحصیلی به اداره مهاجرت فرستاده نخواهد شد. همه ی دانشجویان دانشگاه های دولتی می بایست ابتدا با ویزای عمومی سه ماهه وارد مالزی شده و پس از حداقل یک ماه و نیم از زمان ثبت نام ویزای تحصیلی خود را دریافت نمایند.

     

    4-      ویزای دانشجویی شما تحت نام کالج / دانشگاهی که در آن تحصیل می کنید و با ذکر مقطع تحصیلی و عنوان رشته صادر می شود. بنابراین صرف داشتن ویزای دانشجویی به شما اجازه و امکان تحصیل در هر رشته و دانشگاهی که خواستید را نمی دهد. چنانچه مایل به تغییر رشته باشید، باید دانشگاه / کالج را مطلع کنید تا ویزای شما را در اداره مهاجرت اصلاح نماید. چنانچه بخواهید دانشگاه / کالج تان را عوض کنید، ابتدا باید موافقت کتبی دانشگاه محل تحصیل فعلی را دریافت کنید تا دانشگاه جدید بتواند برای اخذ ویزای تحصیلی شما با نام خودش به اداره مهاجرت درخواست بدهد. ضمن اینکه جهت ابطال ویزای قبلی و صدور ویزای جدید باید حتماً یکبار از مرزهای مالزی خارج و مجددن به آن وارد شوید.

     

     

    5-      طول دوره ویزاهای دانشجویی معمولاً یک ساله است و دانشجو می بایست دو ماه پیش از پایان دوره ویزا دانشگاه را جهت تمدید ویزا برای سال بعد مطلع کند. البته در موارد خاص (مثلاً شخصی که برای 3 یا 4 ماه دوره زبان به مالزی می آید) ممکن است ویزا برای شش ماه یا کمتز صادر شود. در هر حال هنگام پایان تحصیل، هر میزان که از ویزای دانشجویی باقی مانده باشد تفاوتی نمی کند و 15 روز تا یک ماه برای خروج از کشور یا ثبت نام در مقطع بعدی تحصیلی به شما مهلت داده می شود.

     

    6-      ویزای دانشجویی فقط برای درس خواندن است. با ویزای دانشجویی مالزی امکان کار کردن (جز به صورت پاره وقت و به شرط موافقت دانشگاه) نخواهید داشت و این امر جرم تلقی می شود. از طرف دیگر چون لیست های حضور و غیاب کلیه ی دانشگاه ها و کالج ها به اداره مهاجرت ارسال می شود، چنانچه دانشجو بیش از 20 درصد کل زمان تحصیل خود را از کلاس غیبت کرده باشد، اداره مهاجرت برای وی اخطاریه میفرستد. اخطاریه ی چهارم در یک سال مساوی با باطل کردن ویزای دانشجویی و اخراج از مالزی خواهد بود.

     

    7-      هزینه ی انجام امور ویزا برای یک دانشجو بسته به دانشگاه و مقطع تحصیلی به طور متوسط در حدود 600 تا 1000 رینگیت است. این هزینه را دانشگاه / کالج دریافت می کند.

     

    8-      صدور ویزای همراه برای بستگان درجه یک (فقط همسر و فرزندان) دانشجو امکان پذیر است. البته این کار توسط دانشگاه انجام نمی شود. دانشجو می بایست پس از دریافت ویزای خود، نامه ی تاییدیه ای از دانشگاه دریافت نموده همراه با پاسپورت خود و همراهان و سایر مدارک مرتبط (ترجه شناسنامه ها، سند ازدواج) به اداره مهاجرت ببرد. هزینه صدور ویزا برای هر نفر همراه 500 رینگیت است.

     

    9-      دانشجویانی که سن آنها 24 سال و بالاتر است، برای دریافت ویزای دانشجویی علاوه بر مدارک عادی (کپی گذرنامه، عکس و مدرک و ریزنمرات تحصیلی) باید یک گواهی بانکی به زبان انگلیسی با موجودی حداقل 8 میلیون تومان و یک برگه گواهی سابقه کار به زبان انگلیسی نیز برای ارسال به اداره مهاجرت به دانشگاه ارائه نمایند.

     

    10-  در دوره های کارشناسی ارشد و دکترای پژوهشی که فقط نیاز به ارائه ی پایان نامه دارند، با اینکه کلاس درسی برگزار نمی شود حضور دانشجو در دانشگاه حداقل برای 12 ماه اول الزامی است. به این معنی که دانشجو نمی تواند پس از اخذ پذیرش به صورت مکاتبه با استاد پایان نامه بنویسد و فقط برای دفاعیه یا دوره های کوتاه مدت به مالزی بیاید. در این صورت ویزای دانشجویی و در پی آن پذیرش دانشگاه باطل خواهند شد.

     

    11-   تمامی موارد بالا در مورد ویزای دانشجویی و نیاز به صدور آن مربوط به تحصیلات تمام وقت است. چنانچه فردی در مالزی ویزای کار یا اقامت خانه دوم داشته باشد می تواند برای تحصیل پاره وقت افدام کند که نیازی به تغییر ویزا نخواهد داشت. در غیر این صورت، دانشجویان خارجی تنها می توانند در دوره های تمام وقت و همراه با ویزای دانشجویی ثبت نام و تحصیل نمایند.

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  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

    from the cradle to grave ز گهواره تا گور دانش بجوی

    easy come, easy go باد آورده را باد میبرد

    no news is good news بیخبری خوش خبری ست

    third time lucky تا سه نشه بازی نشه

    be the thin end of the wedge تخم مرغ دزد شتر دزد میشود

    tit for tat این به اون در

    every cloud has a silver lining در نا امیدی بسی امید است

    a liar ought to have a good memory دروغگو کم حافظه است

     outstay one's welcome کنگر خوردن و لنگر انداختن

    be more catholic than the pope= کاسه داغ تر از آش

    more royalist than the king

    curiosity killed the cat فضول را بردند جهنم

    the biter bit دست بالای دست بسیار است

    nothing ventured,nothing gained نابرده رنج گنج میسر نمیشود

     bussiness is business حساب حساب است کاکا برادر

    practice makes perfect کار نیکو کردن از پر کردن است

    The cat dreams of mic شتر در خواب بیند پنبه دانه

    (tell) a cock and bull story قصه حسین کرد شبستری گفتن

    smell fishy کاسه ای زیر نیم کاسه است

    Horses for courses هر کسی را بهر کاربی ساخته اند

    A big head has a big ache هر که بامش بیش برفش بیشتر

    Go with the ride هم رنگ جماعت شدن

    East, West, home’s best هیچ کجا خانه خود آدم نمیشود

    Tells tales یک کلاغ چهل کلاغ کردن

    Hit the jackpot یک شب پول دار شدن

    Keep up with the joneses چشم و هم چشمی کردن

    Knock sth down چوب حراج به چیزی زدن

    The miles of God grind slowly (but they grind exceeding small) چوب خدا صدا ندارد

    Put a spoke in sb’s wheel چوب لای چرخ کسی گذاشتن

    Cry wolf چوپان دروغگو

    What’s cooking? چه کاسه ای زیر نیم کاسه است

    Accidents can happen حادثه خبر نمیکند

    Account for حساب پس دادن

     Sweet nothing حرف های صد من یه غاز

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  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

    black-tie event/affair

    - a formal event where guests wear semi-formal clothes with men wearing black bow ties with tuxedos or dinner jackets

    The award ceremony for the movie awards was a black-tie affair.

    blue blood

    - someone from a noble or wealthy or aristocratic family

    Many of the blue bloods of the town went to the opening of the opera.

    blue in the face

    - to be very angry or upset, to be excited and very emotional

    I argued with my supervisor until I was blue in the face.

    blue-ribbon

    - of superior quality or distinction, the best of a group

    A blue-ribbon panel of experts were asked to suggest a new policy for the city.

    brown bag it

    - to take a lunch to work

    I must brown bag it this week because the company cafeteria is closed.

    carte blanche

    - the freedom or permission to do what you want (blanche means white in French)

    The new manager was given carte blanche to change the policies in her department.

    catch (someone) red-handed

    - to catch someone in the middle of doing something wrong

    The woman was caught red-handed when she tried to steal some cosmetics.

    chase rainbows

    - to try to get or achieve something that is difficult or impossible

    My old school friend is always chasing rainbows and he never achieves anything.

    dyed-in-the-wool

    - permanent, always (like wool that is dyed a certain color)

    My father is a dyed-in-the-wool conservative and he will probably never change.

    ears are red

    - one's ears are red from embarrassment

    My ears were red after hearing what the teacher said about me.

    get gray hair

    - to have one's hair turn gray from stress

    Our teacher is getting gray hair from stress.

    get the blues

    - to become sad or depressed

    The dull cloudy weather has caused me to get the blues.

    get the green light

    - to receive a signal to start or continue something

    We got the green light to begin a study of the security problems at our school.

    give (someone) the green light

    - to give someone permission to proceed with a project

    The city gave us the green light to begin the new project.

    grass is always greener on the other side (of the fence)

    - a place or situation that is far away or different seems better than one's present situation

    The man believes that the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence and he always wants to change jobs.

    a gray area

    - something that is not clearly defined and does not conform to an existing set of rules, neither black or white, neither one way or another way

    The issue of the tax on children's toys is a gray area for the accountant.

    gray matter

    - brains, intelligence

    I wish that my friend would use his gray matter more effectively when he is making his crazy plans.

    green

    - to be inexperienced or immature

    The young man is rather green and does not have enough experience to drive the large machinery.

    green around the gills

    - looking sick

    My friend looked green around the gills after the long bus ride.

    green belt

    - an area of fields and trees around a town

    Our city has a policy to increase the green belt around the city.

    green-eyed monster

    - jealousy

    The woman was consumed by the green-eyed monster and it was affecting her life.

    green thumb

    - a talent for gardening, the ability to make things grow

    My neighbor has a green thumb and she is able to grow one of the best gardens in our neighborhood.

    green with envy

    - to be very jealous, to be full of envy

    I was green with envy when I heard that my cousin would be going to London for a week.

    greenhorn

    - an untrained or inexperienced or naive person

    The young man is a greenhorn and he has much to learn about his new job.

    have a yellow streak

    - to be cowardly

    The man has a yellow streak and he will not defend you if you are having a problem.

    have the blues

    - to be sad or depressed

    The man next door seems to have the blues.

    have the green light

    - to have a signal to start or continue something

    The company finally has the green light to start the project.

    horse of a different color

    - something totally separate and different

    I know that our boss would like to discuss that issue now but it is a horse of a different color and we should discuss it at another time.

    in black and white

    - in writing, officially

    I put down my complaint in black and white.

    in (someone's) black books

    - to be in disgrace or in disfavor with someone

    The boy is in his girlfriend's black books because he was late for their date.

    in the black

    - to be successful or profitable

    Our company has been in the black since they began to cut costs.

    in the pink (of condition)

    - in very good health

    My grandmother was in the pink of condition when I saw her.

    in the red

    - to be in debt, to be unprofitable

    The company has been in the red for three years now.

    lend color to (something)

    - to provide something extra to accompany something

    The music in the play helped to lend color to the performance of the actors.

    like waving a red flag in front of a bull

    - what you are doing will definitely make someone angry or upset

    Talking about the city mayor with my father is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. He hates the city mayor.

    local color

    - the traditional features of a place which give it its own character

    The weekend vegetable market added much local color to the small town.

    look at the world through rose-colored glasses

    - to see only the good things about something, to be too optimistic

    My friend always looks at the world through rose-colored glasses and he does not believe that some people are dishonest.

    off-color

    - in bad taste, rude

    The man told an off-color joke at the party which made his wife angry.

    off-color

    - not the exact color

    We painted our kitchen in an off-color of white.

    once in a blue moon

    - very rarely

    We only go out for Italian food once in a blue moon although we enjoy it very much.

    out of the blue

    - without any warning, by surprise (like something that comes out of a blue sky)

    My friend decided out of the blue to quit his job and go to Europe.

    out of the red

    - out of debt

    Our company is finally out of the red and we are now making money.

    paint the town red

    - to go out and party and have a good time

    When my cousin came to visit us we decided to go out and paint the town red.

    pink slip

    - a termination notice from a job

    I received my pink slip last week and I am now looking for a new job.

    pitch-black

    - very black, as black as pitch

    The road was pitch-black and we could not see anything.

    pot calling the kettle black

    - the person who criticizes or accuses someone else is as guilty as the person he or she criticizes or accuses

    My friend criticized me for not changing jobs but that is like the pot calling the kettle black. She will not change jobs either.

    put (something) down in black and white

    - to write the details of a contract or something on paper

    I asked the buyer to put the offer to buy my car down in black and white.

    raise a white flag

    - to indicate that you have been defeated and that you want to give up

    The soldiers raised a white flag and surrendered to the enemy.

    red-carpet treatment

    - to receive special or royal treatment

    I always receive the red-carpet treatment when I go and visit my aunt.

    red-eye

    - an airplane flight that leaves late at night and arrives early in the morning

    We caught the red-eye flight last night and we are very tired today.

    a red flag

    - a signal that something is not working properly or correctly

    The fallen trees along the road raised a red flag for the safety inspectors.

    red herring

    - an unimportant matter that draws attention away from the main subject

    Talking about the other issue was a red herring that did not do anything to deal with today's problem.

    red-hot

    - very hot, creating much excitement or demand

    The new video game is red-hot and many people are waiting to buy one.

    red in the face

    - embarrassed

    I became red in the face when the teacher asked me a question.

    red-letter day

    - a day that is memorable because of some important event

    It was a red-letter day when my sister received her graduation diploma.

    red tape

    - excessive formalities in official business

    Many businesses complain about the red tape that they must deal with in order to get anything done with the government.

    roll out the red carpet

    - to greet a person with great respect, to give a big welcome to someone

    The government rolled out the red carpet when the politician came to visit.

    sail under false colors

    - to pretend to be something that one is not (a pirate ship used to disguise itself as an ordinary ship by using a false flag)

    The head of the company is sailing under false colors and he does not really understand how the company works.

    see pink elephants

    - to see things which are not really there because they are only in your imagination

    The man was seeing pink elephants according to those who listened to his story.

    see red

    - to become very angry

    My boss saw red when I told him that I would not be coming to work today.

    see the color of (someone's) money

    - to prove that someone has enough money for something

    The car dealer would not let me take the car until he saw the color of my money.

    see the world through rose-colored glasses

    - to see only the good things about something, to be too optimistic

    The man sees the world through rose-colored glasses and thinks that everything is wonderful.

    show one`s true colors

    - to show what one is really like or really thinking

    I thought that the woman likes me but she showed her true colors when she began yelling at me on the telephone.

    talk a blue streak

    - to talk very much and very rapidly

    The woman beside me on the bus talked a blue streak for most of the journey.

    talk until one is blue in the face

    - to talk until one is exhausted

    I talked until I was blue in the face but I could not change my teacher's opinion about my essay.

    tickled pink

    - to be very pleased or delighted by someone or something

    "My mother was tickled pink that you visited her when you were in town."

    wave a white flag

    - to indicate that you have been defeated and that you want to give up

    The soldiers were waving a white flag when they surrendered to the enemy.

    white elephant

    - a useless possession (that often costs money to maintain)

    The new airport is a white elephant and nobody wants to use it.

    white lie

    - a harmless or small lie told to be polite or to avoid hurting someone's feelings

    I told my supervisor a white lie yesterday and said that I was sick when actually I was not.

    white sale

    - the selling of towels or sheets at a reduced price

    We went to the white sale at the department store to buy some new sheets.

    white-tie event/affair

    - an event that requires guests to wear formal dress such as men wearing white bow ties with formal evening dress

    I attended a white-tie dinner in honor of the president of our university.

    whitewash (something)

    - to cover up or gloss over faults or errors or wrongdoing

    The government was accused of trying to whitewash the scandal about the illegal money.

    with flying colors

    - with great or total success

    My friend passed the course with flying colors and she now wants to celebrate.

    yellow-bellied

    - extremely timid, cowardly

    The man is yellow-bellied and is never willing to fight for what is right.

    black Idioms


    as black as a skillet

    - very black

    My hands were as black as a skillet when I finished working on the car engine.

    as black as a stack of black cats

    - very black

    The little boy was as black as a stack of black cats after playing outside all day.

    as black as a sweep

    - very dirty or black (a chimney sweep cleans chimneys and becomes very black)

    My friend was as black as a sweep after he finished cleaning the basement.

    as black as coal

    - very black

    My friend's cat is as black as coal.

    as black as night

    - very dark and black

    The old house was as black as night when we entered it.

    as black as pitch

    - very black

    My face was as black as pitch after cleaning the stove all morning.

    as black as the ace of spades

    - very black

    The horse in the parade was as black as the ace of spades.

    black and blue

    - bruised

    My shoulder was black and blue after I fell down the stairs.

    black and white

    - either good or bad, either one way or the other way, oversimplified

    Our boss sees everything in black and white.

    black box

    - an electronic device such as a flight recorder that can be removed from an aircraft as a single package

    The investigators searched for a long time in order to find the black box of the airplane.

    black eye

    - a bruise near one's eye which makes it appear black

    The man received a black eye when he bumped into the closed door.

    black market

    - the place where goods or money are illegally bought and sold

    We sold some cigarettes on the black market during our travels.

    black out

    - to darken a room or building by turning off the lights

    During the war, people in the cities were forced to black out their windows so nobody could see them.

    black out

    - to lose consciousness

    The man blacked out during the parade and he had to sit down and rest.

    black sheep (of a family)

    - a person who is a disgrace to a family or group

    The man is the black sheep in his family and has not made a success of his life.

    blackball (someone)

    - to exclude or ostracize someone socially, to reject someone

    The businessman was blackballed in the industry because of his bad business practices.

    blacklist (someone)

    - to exclude or ostracize someone, to write someone's name on a list if they break some rules

    The sports federation blacklisted the swimmer because he was using steroids.

    blackmail (someone)

    - to extort or take money from someone by threatening him or her

    The photographer tried to blackmail the famous actress with some photographs that he had taken.

    blackout

    - a temporary situation where you do not release some information

    The government decided to have a blackout regarding the political prisoner.

    black-tie event/affair

    - a formal event where guests wear semi-formal clothes with men wearing black bow ties with tuxedos or dinner jackets

    The award ceremony for the movie awards was a black-tie affair.

    in black and white

    - in writing, officially

    I put down my complaint in black and white.

    in (someone's) black books

    - to be in disgrace or in disfavor with someone

    The boy is in his girlfriend's black books because he was late for their date.

    in the black

    - to be successful or profitable

    Our company has been in the black since they began to cut costs.

    pitch-black

    - very black, as black as pitch

    The road was pitch-black and we could not see anything.

    pot calling the kettle black

    - the person who criticizes or accuses someone else is as guilty as the person he or she criticizes or accuses

    My friend criticized me for not changing jobs but that is like the pot calling the kettle black. She will not change jobs either.

    put (something) down in black and white

    - to write the details of a contract or something on paper

    I asked the buyer to put the offer to buy my car down in black and white.

    blue Idioms


    black and blue

    - bruised

    My shoulder was black and blue after I fell down the stairs.

    blue blood

    - the blood of a noble or wealthy or aristocratic family

    Many of the blue bloods of the town went to the opening of the opera.

    blue in the face

    - to be very angry or upset, to be excited and very emotional

    I argued with my supervisor until I was blue in the face.

    blue-ribbon

    - of superior quality or distinction, the best of a group

    A blue-ribbon panel of experts were asked to suggest a new policy for the city.

    get the blues

    - to become sad or depressed

    The dull cloudy weather has caused me to get the blues.

    have the blues

    - to be sad or depressed

    The man next door seems to have the blues.

    out of the blue

    - without any warning, by surprise (like something that comes out of a blue sky)

    My friend decided out of the blue to quit his job and go to Europe.

    talk a blue streak

    - to talk very much and very rapidly

    The woman beside me on the bus talked a blue streak for most of the journey.

    talk until one is blue in the face

    - to talk until one is exhausted

    I talked until I was blue in the face but I could not change my teacher's opinion about my essay.

    gray Idioms


    get gray hair

    - to have one's hair turn gray from stress

    Our teacher is getting gray hair from stress.

    a gray area

    - something that is not clearly defined and does not conform to an existing set of rules, neither black or white, neither one way or another way

    The issue of the tax on children's toys is a gray area for the accountant.

    gray matter

    - brains, intelligence

    I wish that my friend would use his gray matter more effectively when he is making his crazy plans.

  • نظرات() 
  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

    green Idioms


     

    get the green light

    - to receive a signal to start or continue something

    We got the green light to begin a study of the security problems at our school.

    give (someone) the green light

    - to give someone permission to proceed with a project

    The city gave us the green light to begin the new project.

    grass is always greener on the other side (of the fence)

    - a place or situation that is far away or different seems better than one's present situation

    The man believes that the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence and he always wants to change jobs.

    green

    - to be inexperienced or immature

    The young man is rather green and does not have enough experience to drive the large machinery.

    green around the gills

    - looking sick

    My friend looked green around the gills after the long bus ride.

    green belt

    - an area of fields and trees around a town

    Our city has a policy to increase the green belt around the city.

    green-eyed monster

    - jealousy

    The woman was consumed by the green-eyed monster and it was affecting her life.

    green thumb

    - a talent for gardening, the ability to make things grow

    My neighbor has a green thumb and she is able to grow one of the best gardens in our neighborhood.

    green with envy

    - to be very jealous, to be full of envy

    I was green with envy when I heard that my cousin would be going to London for a week.

    greenhorn

    - an untrained or inexperienced or naive person

    The young man is a greenhorn and he has much to learn about his new job.

    have the green light

    - to have a signal to start or continue something

    The company finally has the green light to start the project.

    pink Idioms


     

    in the pink (of condition)

    - in very good health

    My grandmother was in the pink of condition when I saw her.

    look at the world through rose-colored glasses

    - to see only the good things about something, to be too optimistic

    My friend always looks at the world through rose-colored glasses and he does not believe that some people are dishonest.

    pink slip

    - a termination notice from a job

    I received my pink slip last week and I am now looking for a new job.

    see pink elephants

    - to see things which are not really there because they are only in your imagination

    The man was seeing pink elephants according to those who listened to his story.

    see the world through rose-colored glasses

    - to see only the good things about something, to be too optimistic

    The man sees the world through rose-colored glasses and thinks that everything is wonderful.

    tickled pink

    - to be very pleased or delighted by someone or something

    "My mother was tickled pink that you visited her when you were in town."

    red Idioms


     

    as red as a cherry

    - bright red

    The car was as red as a cherry after its new paint job.

    as red as a poppy

    - bright red

    The mark on my arm was as red as a poppy.

    as red as a rose

    - intensely red

    The morning sunrise was as red as a rose.

    as red as a ruby

    - deep red

    The office assistant was wearing lipstick that was as red as a ruby.

    as red as blood

    - deep red

    The stain on the carpet was as red as blood.

    catch (someone) red-handed

    - to catch someone in the middle of doing something wrong

    The woman was caught red-handed when she tried to steal some cosmetics.

    ears are red

    - one's ears are red from embarrassment

    My ears were red after hearing what the teacher said about me.

    in the red

    - to be in debt, to be unprofitable

    The company has been in the red for three years now.

    like waving a red flag in front of a bull

    - what you are doing will definitely make someone angry or upset

    Talking about the city mayor with my father is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. He hates the city mayor.

    out of the red

    - out of debt

    Our company is finally out of the red and we are now making money.

    paint the town red

    - to go out and party and have a good time

    When my cousin came to visit us we decided to go out and paint the town red.

    red-carpet treatment

    - to receive special or royal treatment

    I always receive the red-carpet treatment when I go and visit my aunt.

    red-eye

    - an airplane flight that leaves late at night and arrives early in the morning

    We caught the red-eye flight last night and we are very tired today.

    a red flag

    - a signal that something is not working properly or correctly

    The fallen trees along the road raised a red flag for the safety inspectors.

    red herring

    - an unimportant matter that draws attention away from the main subject

    Talking about the other issue was a red herring that did not do anything to deal with today's problem.

    red-hot

    - very hot, creating much excitement or demand

    The new video game is red-hot and many people are waiting to buy one.

    red in the face

    - embarrassed

    I became red in the face when the teacher asked me a question.

    red-letter day

    - a day that is memorable because of some important event

    It was a red-letter day when my sister received her graduation diploma.

    red tape

    - excessive formalities in official business

    Many businesses complain about the red tape that they must deal with in order to get anything done with the government.

    roll out the red carpet

    - to greet a person with great respect, to give a big welcome to someone

    The government rolled out the red carpet when the politician came to visit.

    see red

    - to become very angry

    My boss saw red when I told him that I would not be coming to work today.

    white Idioms


     

    as white as a ghost

    - very pale because of fear or shock or illness

    My sister became as white as a ghost when she saw the man at the window.

    as white as a sheet

    - very pale

    I felt terrible this morning and in the mirror I looked as white as a sheet.

    as white as the driven snow

    - very white

    The fur on the dog was as white as the driven snow.

    black and white

    - either good or bad, either one way or the other way, oversimplified

    Our boss sees everything in black and white.

    carte blanche

    - the freedom or permission to do what you want (blanche means white in French)

    The new manager was given carte blanche to change the policies in her department.

    in black and white

    - in writing, officially

    I put down my complaint in black and white.

    put (something) down in black and white

    - to write the details of a contract or something on paper

    I asked the buyer to put the offer to buy my car down in black and white.

    raise a white flag

    - to indicate that you have been defeated and that you want to give up

    The soldiers raised a white flag and surrendered to the enemy.

    wave a white flag

    - to indicate that you have been defeated and that you want to give up

    The soldiers were waving a white flag when they surrendered to the enemy.

    white elephant

    - a useless possession (that often costs money to maintain)

    The new airport is a white elephant and nobody wants to use it.

    white lie

    - a harmless or small lie told to be polite or to avoid hurting someone's feelings

    I told my supervisor a white lie yesterday and said that I was sick when actually I was not.

    white sale

    - the selling of towels or sheets at a reduced price

    We went to the white sale at the department store to buy some new sheets.

    white-tie event/affair

    - an event that requires guests to wear formal dress such as men wearing white bow ties with formal evening dress

    I attended a white-tie dinner in honor of the president of our university.

    whitewash (something)

    - to cover up or gloss over faults or errors or wrongdoing

    The government was accused of trying to whitewash the scandal about the illegal money.

    yellow Idioms


     

    have a yellow streak

    - to be cowardly

    The man has a yellow streak and he will not defend you if you are having a problem.

    yellow-bellied

    - extremely timid, cowardly

    The man is yellow-bellied and is never willing to fight for what is right.

  • نظرات() 
  • چهارشنبه 23 تیر 1389

    as black as a skillet

    - very black

    My hands were as black as a skillet when I finished working on the car engine.

    as black as a stack of black cats

    - very black

    The little boy was as black as a stack of black cats after playing outside all day.

    as black as a sweep

    - very dirty or black (a chimney sweep cleans chimneys and becomes very black)

    My friend was as black as a sweep after he finished cleaning the basement.

    as black as coal

    - very black

    My friend's cat is as black as coal.

    as black as night

    - very dark and black

    The old house was as black as night when we entered it.

    as black as pitch

    - very black

    My face was as black as pitch after cleaning the stove all morning.

    as black as the ace of spades

    - very black

    The horse in the parade was as black as the ace of spades.

    as red as a cherry

    - bright red

    The car was as red as a cherry after its new paint job.

    as red as a poppy

    - bright red

    The mark on my arm was as red as a poppy.

    as red as a rose

    - intensely red

    The morning sunrise was as red as a rose.

    as red as a ruby

    - deep red

    The office assistant was wearing lipstick that was as red as a ruby.

    as red as blood

    - deep red

    The stain on the carpet was as red as blood.

    as white as a ghost

    - very pale because of fear or shock or illness

    My sister became as white as a ghost when she saw the man at the window.

    as white as a sheet

     - very pale

    I felt terrible this morning and in the mirror I looked as white as a sheet.

    as white as the driven snow

    - very white

    The fur on the dog was as white as the driven snow.

    black and blue

    - bruised

    My shoulder was black and blue after I fell down the stairs.

    black and white

    - either good or bad, either one way or the other way, oversimplified

    Our boss sees everything in black and white.

    black box

    - an electronic device such as a flight recorder that can be removed from an aircraft as a single package

    The investigators searched for a long time in order to find the black box of the airplane.

    black eye

    - a bruise near one's eye which makes it appear black

    The man received a black eye when he bumped into the closed door.

    black market

    - the place where goods or money are illegally bought and sold

    We sold some cigarettes on the black market during our travels.

    black out

    - to darken a room or building by turning off the lights

    During the war, people in the cities were forced to black out their windows so nobody could see them.

    black out

    - to lose consciousness

    The man blacked out during the parade and he had to sit down and rest.

  • نظرات() 
  • شنبه 19 تیر 1389

    The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University, or simply Cambridge) is the second oldest university in England and the fourth oldest in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge).

    The university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge that was formed, early records suggest, in 1209 by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk.[5] The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities have a long history of rivalry with each other.

    Academically, Cambridge has been ranked one of the world's top five universities,[6] the leading university in Europe,[7] and contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables.[8][9][10] The University's alumni include 87 Nobel Laureates as of 2010.[11] The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the League of European Research Universities and the International Alliance of Research Universities

    The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University, or simply Cambridge) is the second oldest university in England and the fourth oldest in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge).

    The university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge that was formed, early records suggest, in 1209 by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk.[5] The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities have a long history of rivalry with each other.

    Academically, Cambridge has been ranked one of the world's top five universities,[6] the leading university in Europe,[7] and contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables.[8][9][10] The University's alumni include 87 Nobel Laureates as of 2010.[11] The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the League of European Research

    The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University, or simply Cambridge) is the second oldest university in England and the fourth oldest in the world. In post-nominals the university's name is abbreviated as Cantab, a shortened form of Cantabrigiensis (an adjective derived from Cantabrigia, the Latinised form of Cambridge).

    The university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge that was formed, early records suggest, in 1209 by scholars leaving Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk.[5] The two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of British society, the two universities have a long history of rivalry with each other.

    Academically, Cambridge has been ranked one of the world's top five universities,[6] the leading university in Europe,[7] and contends with Oxford for first place in UK league tables.[8][9][10] The University's alumni include 87 Nobel Laureates as of 2010.[11] The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group, the League of European Research Universities and the International Alliance of Research Universities.Universities and the International Alliance of Research Universities..

  • نظرات() 
  • جمعه 18 تیر 1389

    اعلام رشته ها و مشاغل جدید مورد نیاز اقامت دائم استرالیا چاپ ارسال برای دوستان
    توسط کوچ - the Kooch.com   

    دولت استرالیا در تاریخ 10 تیر 1389 ( اول جولای 2010 ) لیست جدید مشاغل مورد نیاز این کشور در سال 2010 را اعلام نمود.

     

     اجرای این لیست از 1 جولای 2010 می باشد.لازم به ذکر است رشته هایی که قبل از این تاریخ(1 جولای 2010) پرونده شان در اداره مهاجرت ثبت شده است مشمول این تغییرقوانین نمی شوند.

     

    لیست این رشته ها بطور کامل در زیر آمده است:

     

    Corresponding occupation     Code 
    133111  Construction project manager
    133112  Project builder
    133211  Engineering manager
    134111  Child Care centre manager
    134211  Medical administrator
    134212  Nursing clinical director
    134213  Primary health organisation manager
    134214  Welfare centre manager
    221111  Accountant (general)
    221112  Management accountant
    221113  Taxation accountant
    221213  External auditor
    221214  Internal auditor
    224111  Actuary
    224511  Land economist
    224512  Valuer
    231212  Ship's engineer
    231213  Ship's master
    231214  Ship's officer
    232111  Architect
    232112  Landscape architect
    232213  Cartographer
    232214  Other Spatial Scientist
    232212  Surveyor
    232611  Urban and regional planner
    233111  Chemical engineer
    233112  Materials engineer
    233211  Civil engineer
    233212  Geotechnical engineer
    233213  Quantity surveyor
    233214  Structural engineer
    233215  Transport engineer
    233311  Electrical engineer
    233411  Electronics engineer
    233511  Industrial engineer
    233512  Mechanical engineer
    233513  Production or plant engineer
    233611  Mining Engineer (excluding Petroleum)
    233612  Petroleum engineer
    233911  Aeronautical engineer
    233912  Agricultural engineer
    233913  Biomedical engineer
    233914  Engineering technologist
    233915  Environmental engineer
    233916  Naval architect 
    234111  Agricultural consultant
    234112  Agricultural scientist
    234113  Forester 
    234211  Chemist
    234611  Medical laboratory scientist
    234711  Veterinarian
    241111  Early childhood (pre-primary school) teacher
    241411  Secondary school teacher
    241511  Special needs teacher
    241512  Teacher of the hearing impaired
    241513  Teacher of the sight impaired
    241599  Special education teachers nec
    251211  Medical diagnostic radiographer
    251212  Medical radiation therapist
    251213  Nuclear medicine technologist
    251214  Sonographer
    251411  Optometrist
    251412  Orthoptist
    252111  Chiropractor
    252112  Osteopath
    252311  Dental specialist
    252312  Dentist
    252411  Occupational therapist
    252511  Physiotherapist
    252611  Podiatrist
    252711  Audiologist
    252712  Speech pathologist 
    253111  General medical practitioner
    253211  Anaesthetist
    253311  Specialist physician
    253312  Cardiologist
    253313  Clinical haematologist
    253314  Medical oncologist
    253315  Endocrinologist
    253316  Gastroenterologist
    253317  Intensive care specialist
    253318  Neurologist
    253321  Paediatrician
    253322  Renal medicine specialist
    253323  Rheumatologist
    253324  Thoracic medicine specialist
    253399  Specialist Physians nec
    253411  Psychiatrist
    253511  Surgeon (general)
    253512  Cardiothoracic surgeon
    253513  Neurosurgeon
    253514  Orthopaedic surgeon
    253515  Otorhinolaryngologist
    253516  Paediatric surgeon
    253517  Plastic and reconstructive surgeon
    253518  Urologist
    253521  Vascular surgeon
    253911  Dermatologist
    253912  Emergency medicine specialist
    253913  Obstetrician and Gynaecologist
    253914  Ophthalmologist
    253915  Pathologist
    253917  Diagnostic & Interventional Radiologist
    253918  Radiation Oncologist
    253999  Medical practitioners nec
    254111  Midwife
    254411  Nurse Practitioner
    254412  Registered nurse (aged care)
    254413  Registered nurse (Child and Family Health)
    254414  Registered nurse (community health)
    254415  Registered nurse (critical care and emergency)
    254416  Registered nurse (development disability)
    254417  Registered nurse (disability and rehabilitation)
    254418  Registered nurse (medical)
    254421  Registered nurse (medical practice)
    254422  Registered nurse (mental health)
    254423  Registered nurse (perioperative)
    254424  Registered nurse (surgical)
    254499  Registered nurse
    261111  ICT business analyst
    261112  Systems analyst
    261311  Analyst programmer
    261312  Developer programmer
    261313  Software engineer
    263311  Telecommunications engineer
    263312  Telecommunications network engineer
    272311  Clinical psychologist
    272312  Educational psychologist
    272313  Organisational psychologist
    272314  Psychotherapist
    272399  Psychologists nec
    272511  Social worker
    312211  Civil engineer draftsperson
    312212  Civil engineer technician
    312311  Electrical engineer draftperson
    312312  Electrical engineer technician
    313211  Radiocommunications technician
    313212  Telecommunications field engineer
    313213  Telecommunications network planner
    313214  Telecommunications technical officer or technologist
    321111  Automotive electrician
    321211  Motor mechanic (general)
    321212  Diesel motor mechanic
    321213  Motorcycle mechanic
    321214  Small engine mechanic
    322211  Sheetmetal trades worker
    322311  Metal Fabricator
    322312  Pressure Welder
    322313  Welder (first class)
    323111  Aircraft maintenance engineer (avionics)
    323112  Aircraft maintenance engineer (mechanical)
    323113  Aircraft maintenance engineer (structures)
    323313  Locksmith
    324111  Panelbeater
    324311  Vehicle painter
    331111  Bricklayer
    331112  Stonemason
    331211  Carpenter and Joiner
    331212  Carpenter 
    331213  Joiner
    332211  Painting trades workers
    333111  Glazier
    333211  Fibrous plasterer
    333212  Solid plasterer
    333411  Wall and floor tiler
    334111  Plumber (general)
    334112  Airconditioning and mechanical services plumber
    334113  Drainer 
    334114  Gasfitter
    334115  Roof plumber
    341111  Electrician (general)
    341112  Electrician (special class)
    341113  Lift mechanic
    342111  Airconditioning and refrigeration mechanic
    342211  Electrical linesworker 
    342212  Technical cable jointer
    342313  Electronic equipment trades worker
    342314  Electronic instrument trades worker (general)
    342315  Electronic instrument trades worker (special class)
    411211  Dental Hygienist
    411212  Dental Prosthetist
    411213  Dental technician
    411214  Dental therapist

    شایان ذکر است که لیست جدید مشاغل مورد نیاز ایالتهای مختلف استرالیا در نیمه دوم سال 2010 اعلام خواهد شد.

  • نظرات() 
  • جمعه 18 تیر 1389

    قانون مهاجرت کانادا Immigration and Refugee Protection Act متقاضیان اقامت دائم را در سه دسته کلی زیر قرار می دهد [بند ۱۲ قانون مهاجرت].

    • کسانی که به واسطه اقوام نزدیکشان وارد کانادا می شوند Family Reunification (به هم رساندن اعضای خانواده)
    • افرادی که می توانند در کانادا به خودی خود مستقر شوند و ادامه زندگی دهند Economic Immigration (مهاجرت اقتصادی)
    • افرادی که نیاز به حمایت کانادا دارند یا به خاطر مسایل انسانی وارد کانادا می شوند یا بهتر بگویم پناهنده ها Refugees

    در حال حاضر بزرگترین گروه مهاجر به کانادا گروه دوم یعنی Economic Immigrants هستند. این گروه خود به چند زیرگروه تقسیم می شود (نظیر گروه متخصصین و تجاری [لینک]). در میان این گروه متخصصین فدرال یعنی کسانی که به واسطه تخصص و سابقه کاری خود در سطح فدرال برای مهاجرت اقدام می کنند نزدیک به ۵۰ درصد کل مهاجران به کانادا را تشکیل می دهند [لینک].

    در این نوشته در خصوص روش مهاجرت متخصصین می نویسم. در حال حاضر این روش به واسطه استفاده اداره مهاجرت کانادا Citizenship and Immigration Canada از اختیارات خود معروف به Ministerial Instructions (دستورالعمل اداری) تغییراتی اساسی کرده است. این تغییرات در تاریخ ۲۸ ماه نوامبر سال ۲۰۰۸ معرفی و شامل کلیه کسانی می شود که از ۲۷ فوریه ۲۰۰۸ به بعد در این دسته برای مهاجرت اقدام کرده اند. بنا به این تغییرات تنها کسانی می توانند برای این دسته اقدام کنند که یکی از شرایط زیر را داشته باشند.

    • از طرف یک شرکت کانادایی دعوتنامه شغلی معتبر داشته باشند. این دعوتنامه شغلی را در اصطلاح Arranged Employment Offer یا AEO می گویند. برای اطلاعات بیشتر درباره این نوع دعوتنامه ها اینجا کلیک کنید.
    • به طور قانونی و موقت حداقل به مدت یک سال در کانادا کار یا تحصیل کرده باشند. این شرط برای کسانی که پرونده شان از تاریخ ۲۶ جون ۲۰۱۰ به بعد به دست اداره مهاجرت برسد اعتبار ندارد.
    • در ده سال گذشته حداقل یک سال به طور تمام وقت در یکی ازشغل های تعریف شده در لیست اداره مهاجرت فعال بوده باشند. در حال حاضر لیست این شغل ها برروی وب سایت اداره مهاجرت منتشر می شود [لینک]. برای مشاهده این لیست به زبان فارسی اینجا کلیک کنید.

    از آنجا که موارد فوق براساس اختیارات اداره مهاجرت تصویب شده است و هنوز در متن قانون Act یا آئین نامه Regulations مهاجرت وارد نشده، ممکن است هر لحظه تغییر کند. در ضمن از ابتدا بنا بود که لیست مشاغل هر سال با مشورت با استان ها تغییر کند که تا جایی که نگارنده مطلع است تا کنون چنین اتفاقی نیافتاده است.

    در روش جدید مهاجرت شخص متقاضی لازم است فرم های تقاضانامه Application Forms و هزینه بررسی پرونده Processing Fee را ابتدا به دفتر مرکزی دریافت مدارک مهاجرت Central Intake Office یا CIO واقع در شهر سیدنی استان نوا اسکوشیا ارسال کند. آدرس این مرکز در زیر آمده است.

    Citizenship and Immigration Canada
    Federal Skilled Worker
    Centralized Intake Office
    PO BOX 7500
    Sydney, NS
    B1P 0A9
    Canada

    مرکز مذکور فرم ها را بررسی می کند و اگر شما را دارای شرایط لازم برای مهاجرت بداند، پرونده مهاجرتی شما را به یکی از دفاتر ویزای کاناد ارسال می کند. دفتر ویزایی که بیش از همه پرونده های ایرانی ها به آن ارسال می شود سفارت کانادا در دمشق است. با ارسال پرونده به دفتر ویزا که از طریق سیستم بانک اطلاعاتی اداره مهاجرت معروف به CAIPS (مخفف Computer-Assisted Immigration Processing System) صورت می گیرد، شما نامه ای دریافت می کنید و طی آن به شما ۱۲۰ روز فرصت داده می شود که همه مدارک لازم را به دفتر ویزا ارسال نمایید. اگر در این ۱۲۰ روز مدارک را ارسال نکنید پرونده شما بسته می شود.

    اگر همان ابتدا و هنگام ارسال فرم ها به دفتر مرکزی بررسی پرونده، مورد تایید واقع نشوید، پرونده شما بسته می شود و پولی را که بابت بررسی پرونده پرداخت کرده اید به صورت چک دریافت می کنید. ارسال چک معمولا بین ۴ تا ۶ هفته طول می کشد.

    دقت بفرمایید که موارد فوق ممکن است هر زمان تغییر کند. برای دریافت آخرین اطلاعات همواره به وب سایت اداره مهاجرت مراجعه فرمایید [لینک] یا با یک مشاور رسمی مهاجرت در تماس باشید [لینک].

    در حال حاضر استفاده از مشاور مهاجرت برای این روش مهاجرت به کانادا منطقی به نظر می رسد، یکی به دلیل اینکه قبل از اقدام مطمئن می شود که شما شرایط اقدام از این راه را دارید و دوم اینکه اگر خدای نکرده پرونده شما مردود شد، به راحتی چک شما را در کانادا خرد می کند و برایتان ارسال می نماید. در ضمن ممکن است مشاور شما بتواند در بعضی زمینه های دیگر هم شما را راهنمایی و کمک کند. البته دقت فرمایید که پرونده هایی که به وسیله مشاور ارسال می شوند، ارجحیت خاصی نسبت به سایر پرونده ها ندارند. تنها، داشتن مشاور به معنای همراهی کسی است که تخصص در زمینه مهاجرت و قوانین آن دارد.

    آخرین نکته اینکه در حال حاضر برای دعوتنامه شغلی و همین طور سابقه کار در کانادا تنها شغل هایی مورد قبول هستند که در رده مدیریتی، تخصصی یا تکنسینی باشند. در خصوص شغل ها در آینده بیشتر خواهم نوشت.

  • نظرات() 
  • جمعه 18 تیر 1389

    کشور کانادا یکی از مهاجرپذیرترین کشورهای دنیاست. در سال ۲۰۰۹ میلادی نزدیک به ۲۵۰ هزار نفر به این کشور مهاجرت کرده یا پناهنده شده اند. همچنین بیش از ۲۷۰ هزار نفر با ویزای دانشجویی یا کار موقت در کانادا حضور پیدا کرده اند. فهرست زیر آمار ده کشور اولی که به کانادا مهاجرت کرده اند را نشان می دهد. همان طور که مشاهده می کنید کشور عزیزمان ایران با بیش از ۶۰۰۰ مهاجر در رده نهم این فهرسایران - کانادا
    1. چین ۲۹۳۳۶ نفر
    2. هند ۲۴۵۴۹ نفر
    3. فیلیپین ۲۳۷۲۴ نفر
    4. آمریکا ۱۱۲۱۶ نفر
    5. انگلستان ۹۲۴۳ نفر
    6. پاکستان ۸۰۵۲ نفر
    7. کره جنوبی ۷۲۴۳ نفر
    8. فرانسه ۶۳۸۴ نفر
    9. ایران ۶۰۱۰ نفر
    10. کلمبیا ۴۹۹۵ نفر

    در مجموع، ۱۰ کشور اول صادر کننده مهاجر به کانادا ۱۳۰۷۵۴ مهاجر را به این کشور ارسال کرده اند که نزدیک ۵۳ درصد کل مهاجران به کانادا را تشکیل می دهند. سایر کشورها ۱۱۶۴۸۹ مهاجر به کانادا فرستاده اند تا مجموع مهاجران و پناهندگان به کانادا درسال ۲۰۰۹ میلادی به ۲۴۷۲۴۳ نفر برسد.

    از مجموع ۲۴۷۲۴۳ نفر فوق ۲۱۸۶۰ نفر از راه پناهندگی به کانادا آمده اند (یا مستقیما و یا به کمک سازمان ملل و سازمان های امور خیریه). بزرگترین گروه مهاجر به کانادا دسته متخصصین یا کارکنان ماهر Federal Skilled Worker class است. در این دسته در سال ۲۰۰۹ تعداد ۷۶۹۶۴ نفر به کانادا مهاجرت کرده اند.

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  • جمعه 18 تیر 1389

    در آرایشگاه

    پیش از این چند اصطلاح روزمره کانادایی ها را ذکر کردم. در این پست کوتاه هم قصد دارم یکی دو مورد دیگر را خدمتتان عرض کنم. اگر از خوانندگان قدیمی “کاناداجون” باشید، به احتمال قوی نوشته بنده را در مورد آرایشگاه در کانادا خوانده اید [لینک]. در اینجا یکی دو مورد دیگر را هم ذکر می کنم.

    کلمه آرایشگاه یا سلمانی در زبان انگلیسی Barber shop گفته می شود ولی اگر قصد دارید با احترام بیشتری به این محل اشاره کنید، یا در جایی هستید که باید کمی رسمی تر حرف بزنید بهتر است بگویید Hair Salon (بخوانید هیر سِلان) یا فقط Salon. در ضمن شخص آرایشگر Barber هم در اصطلاح رسمی تر Hair Stylist گفته می شود که محترمانه تر هم هست.

    اگر آقا هستید و موی سرتان را مثل بنده خیلی کوتاه می کنید در آن صورت معمولا پشت سرتان را یا به صورت گرد Rounded کوتاه خواهید کرد یا صاف Squared.

    چنانچه به سرتان ژل می زنید آن وقت می گوید I put gel on my hair.

    خط ریش هم Sideburns یا Sideboards گفته می شود.

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  • جمعه 18 تیر 1389

    دارو و داروخانه


    داروداروMedicine در کانادا به دو شکل بدون نسخه Over the counter و با نسخه Prescription drug فروخته می شود. در این نوشته ضمن معرفی روش خرید هر دو نوع دارو برخی مسایل جانبی نظیر داروخانه ها، قیمت دارو، سیستم سفارش دارو، نحوه پرداخت هزینه دارو و امثال آن را مورد بررسی قرار می دهم.

    داروخانه های کانادایی

    مغازه های زیادی به فروش دارو می پردازند. یک سری از مغازه های موجود در کانادا تحت نام داروخانه Pharmacy فعالیت می کنند. از جمله می توان به Shoppers Drug Mart، Pharma Plus و  Rexall اشاره کرد. این فروشگاه ها معمولا در کنار دارو اقلام دیگری هم می فروشند، نظیر لوازم آرایش، پوشک و غذای بچه، شیشه شیر، مجله و روزنامه  و حتی گاه مواد خوراکی نظیر چیپس و نوشابه و هزار و یک چیز دیگر.

    نحوه چیدن دارو و سایر اقلام در اغلب این داروخانه ها شبیه سوپرمارکت هاست. به عبارت دیگر تعدادی قفسه Rack به صورت موازی در کنار هم قرار دارند. خریداران از راهروهای Aisle (بخوانید آیل) میان این ققسه ها عبور می کنند و داروی مورد نیاز خود را بر می دارند. بعد هم به صندوق Checkout  مراجعه می کنند تا پول دارو و سایر اقلام را پرداخت نمایند.

    اگر داروی مورد نیاز به نسخه Prescription احتیاج داشته باشد باید به محل خاصی از داروخانه مراجعه شود که پیشخوان دارد و امکان دسترسی مشتری به پشت آن موجود نیست. مشتری نسخه را به فردی که پشت دخل است تحویل می دهد و آنها پس از مدتی دارو را آماده می کنند و پس از دریافت مبلغ دارو، آن را به مشتری تحویل می دهند. در ادامه در خصوص این داروها بیشتر توضیح می دهم.

    کسی که مسوول اداره این بخش از داروخانه (یعنی داروهای نسخه ای) است، Pharmacist نام دارد که همان دکتر داروساز خودمان باشد.

    علاوه بر داروخانه ها، فروشگاه های زنجیره ای نیز معمولا بخش داروخانه دارند. از جمله می توان به Zellers، Wal Mart و Canadian Super Store اشاره کرد.

    نسخه، چگونه به دست داروخانه می رسد

    معمولا دکتر خانواده شما و همین طور دکتر های متخصص از طریق اینترنت و یا فاکس با داروخانه در تماس هستند. وقتی پزشک، قصد نسخه نوشتن داشته باشد از شما نام داروخانه ای که می خواهید از آن خرید کنید را می پرسد. پس از مشخص شدن داروخانه، پزشک نسخه را از طریق اینترنت و گاه فاکس (نمابر؟) به داروخانه می فرستد تا هنگام مراجعه به داروخانه نسخه تان آماده باشد و معطل نشوید. همین طور اگر دارویی نیاز به تمدید Refill داشته باشد، به دو شکل عمل می شود. یا دکترتان از قبل داروخانه را از بابت تمدید دارو مطلع کرده است یا خیر. اگر داروخانه مطلع باشد، با یک تماس تلفنی نسخه را برایتان آماده می کنند تا سر فرصت مراجعه کنید و داروها را تحویل بگیرید Pick up. اگر هم داروخانه مطلع نیست، به پزشکتان تلفن می زنید تا دارویتان را سفارش دهد و بعد هم به داروخانه می روید و دارو را تحویل می گیرید.

    جالب است بدانید که بسیاری از داروخانه سرویس تحویل در منزل هم دارند که در اصطلاح Home Delivery گفته می شود. خیلی از داروخانه ها این سرویس را به رایگان ارائه می کنند تا در رقابت با سایرین پیش بیافتند. حتی بامزه تر اینکه بعضی از داروخانه ها Drive-through (یا Drive-thru) دارند؛ یعنی اینکه پنجره ای خارج از داروخانه وجود دارد که با خودرو به آن مراجعه می کنید و دارویتان را تحویل می گیرید. به این ترتیب برای تحویل دارو نیازی به پیاده شدن از خودرو ندارید.

    اگر از قبل هماهنگ نکرده باشید ممکن است مدت زمانی (معمولا بین ۱۰ الی ۲۰ دقیقه) معطل شوید تا نسخه تان حاضر شود. اشکال این معطلی آن است که وسوسه می شوید چرخی در فروشگاه بزنید. چرخی در فروشگاه زدن همان و دلار از کف رفتن همان!!

    داروهای نسخه ای Prescription Drugs

    داروهای نسخه ای به شکل های مختلف نظیر قرص Pills و شربت Syrup و آمپول Shots فروخته می شوند. داروخانه ها معمولا این نوع داروها را در حجم زیاد و به صورت فله Batch می خرند. وقتی به داروخانه مراجعه می کنید تعداد یا حجم مورد نیاز شما را بسته بندی می کنند و تحویلتان می دهند. مثلا قرص ها را به تعداد مورد نیاز در قوطی می ریزند و برروی قوطی برچسبی می زنند که مشخصات دارو و همین طور نام بیمار و میزان Dosage مصرف نوشته شده است. اگر لازم باشد دارو در شرایط خاصی نگهداری شود، برروی برچسب توضیح می دهند. بسته به نوع دارو ممکن است در کنار قوطی یا جعبه دارو چند برگ کاغذ هم تحویلتان دهند که برروی آنها توضیحات بیشتری درباره دارو و بیماری یا بیماری های مرتبط با آن داده شده است. همچنین خیلی اوقات دکتر داروساز شما را در زمینه نحوه مصرف دارو راهنمایی می کند.

    داروخانه ها علاوه بر قیمت پایه داروهای نسخه ای، مبلغی را هم تحت عنوان حق فرانشیز که Dispensing Fee می گویند دریافت می کنند. این مبلغ خیلی اوقات به مراتب بیشتر از قیمت داروست. در بیشتر داروخانه ها حق فرانشیز بین ۷ تا ۱۰ دلار است و معمولا برای هر دارو جداگانه دریافت می شود. این در حالی است که ممکن است آنتی بیوتیک مورد نیاز یک کودک بیمار کمتر از ۳ دلار باشد.

    داروهای بدون نسخه Over the Counter Medicines

    بسیاری از داروهای مورد نیاز برای بیماری های سبک متداول،نظیر سرماخوردگی، سر درد، بعضی انواع حساسیت ها و امثال آن بدون نسخه فروخته می شوند. این داروها در بسته بندی های اصلی خود برروی قفسه های داروخانه قرار دارند و بابت آنها حق فرانشیز دریافت نمی شود. از جمله این داروها می توان به موارد زیر اشاره کرد.

    • قرص های مسکن نظیرTylenol (که همان استامینوفن خودمان باشد)، Advil (که همان بروفن است) و Motrin (بروفن)
    • قرص های سرماخوردگی نظیر Tylenol (معادل ادالت کلد) و Cold Fx (که نمی دانم چه معجونی است ولی خیلی قدرتمند و گران است)
    • شربت های سرماخوردگی مثل NyQuil و DayQuil
    • شربت های سرفه مثل Buckley’s

    جالب است بدانید که بعضی از این داروها فقط مختص مصرف شبانه یا روزانه هستند. معمولا داروهای شبانه قوی تر هستند و ممکن است خواب آلودگی به همراه داشته باشند.

    پول دارو را چه کسی می دهد؟

    پوشش سراسری پزشکی کانادا Universal Health Care معمولا پول دارو را پوشش نمی دهد. به طور معمول دارویی که در بیمارستان مصرف می کنید از این نظر مستثناست. بجز این مورد، پیش فرض بر آن است که پول دارو را باید از جیب خودتان بدهید. اغلب استان ها برنامه های خاصی برای کمک کردن به کسانی دارند که وضع مالی شان مناسب نیست، یا آنکه پول داروهایشان بخش قابل توجهی از درآمدشان است. این برنامه ها تمام یا بخش قابل توجهی از پول دارو را پرداخت می کنند. از جمله می توان به Trillium Drug Program استان انتاریو اشاره کرد.

    بعضی شرکت ها در بسته استخدامی خود Drug Plan هم به کارمندانشان ارائه می کنند. بدین مفهوم که شرکت مذکور کارمند خود را در مقابل هزینه های دارویی بیمه می کند و در صورت نیاز به خرید دارو تمام یا بخش قابل توجهی از هزینه آن به وسیله شرکت بیمه پرداخت می شود. نظر به اینکه این نوع قراردادها بسیار متنوع هستند، شرح آن را به نوشته ای دیگر واگذار می کنم. فقط این نکته را ذکر می کنم که اغلب این برنامه ها تنها داروهای نسخه ای را پوشش می دهند.

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